The causes of acute renal failure include autoimmune kidney disease, cholesterol emboli, urinary tract blockage and acute tubular necrosis, or ATN, notes MedlinePlus. Infections that cause injury to the kidney such as acute pyelonephritis and reduced blood circulation resulting from excessively low blood pressure can also cause acute renal failure.
Acute renal failure, also known as acute kidney failure, is a condition in which the kidney quickly loses its filtration ability, causing imbalance between the body fluids and electrolytes, according to MedlinePlus. This condition typically occurs in less than two days and may result in symptoms such as a bloody stool, fatigue, mood changes, hypertension and inflammation in the legs, feet and ankles. It may also reduce appetite, cause bad breath and result in urination habit changes, including too much nighttime urination, little urination or complete stoppage of urine output. It is advisable to seek immediate medical attention if the symptoms of acute renal failure manifest.
The treatment of acute renal failure involves addressing the underlying cause in order to restore the normal functioning of the kidney, says MedlinePlus. Treatment options include medications that control the level of potassium in the blood, diuretics to eliminate fluid retention from the body, dialysis to eliminate wastes, excess salt and water from the body, and limitation of fluid intake to reduce urine production.