Abnormal thickening of the uterine wall occurs when estrogen and progesterone hormonal levels are imbalanced: excess estrogen with low or no levels of progesterone. The imbalance can result from overproduction of estrogen, estrogen replacement therapy, ovarian tumors, tamoxifen use, obesity combined with diabetes, and menopause, notes Patient.co.uk.
Endometrium hyperplasia is a condition where the uterus lining (endometrium) thickens due to excess estrogen. The endometrium lining thickens monthly to prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If the conception does not occur, the lining is shed in a process known as menstruation. The hormones estrogen and progesterone regulate this process, states HealthGrades.
The prevalent symptoms of endometrium hyperplasia include: vaginal bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse, long and heavy menstrual bleeding, amenorrhea (absence of menstrual bleeding) and anovulatory periods, as detailed by HealthCommunities.com.
Several methods can be applied to diagnose endometrium hyperplasia. These are Pap smear, transvaginal ultrasound, endometrial biopsy, dilation and curettage (D&C) or hysteroscopy, notes The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Treatment options hormonal therapy for menopausal women such as progestin (synthetic progesterone), removal of excessive uterine tissue, hysterectomy (the removal of the uterus or other reproductive organs) and stopping estrogen therapy. Severe endometrium hyperplasia may develop into cancer of the uterus or endometrial carcinoma. Recurrence may occur post-treatment, according to Patient.co.uk.