A cataract surgical operation is a medical procedure to remove the cloudy lens of the eye and replace it with an artificial one. This procedure is used to treat a condition called cataract, clouding of the eye. This condition commonly occurs due to the normal aging process, but may also be caused by a chemical injury or can occur at birth, as stated by WebMD.
Cataract surgery is an outpatient procedure, meaning that a patient does not have to stay in the hospital after the surgery. It takes an hour or less to be completed. During the surgery, the doctor will have to dilate the pupil using eye drops. Sedatives will be used to attain relaxation while anesthetics are used to numb the area. The cloudy lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens. The surgeon can make an incision in the eye to remove the cloudy lens through a procedure called extracapsular cataract extraction. He or she can also use a more common procedure called phacoemulsification, which involves the use of ultrasound to break the affected lens before removal.
The vision of the eye is expected to start improving a few days after the surgery. Regular visits to the doctor will be necessary to monitor healing. Itching and discomfort are common occurrences during the healing process, according to Mayo Clinic.