The treatment options for bladder leakage include medications and surgery, according to WebMD. Making behavioral and lifestyle changes may also help prevent leakage caused by coughing, laughing or engaging in strenuous activity.
Doctors prescribe medications called anticholinergics to some people with bladder leakage. WebMD notes that these drugs prevent bladder spasms. Botox is another medication used to treat this condition. When injected into the bladder muscles, Botox relaxes the bladder and increases the organ's urine capacity.
If medications do not work, surgery may be an option. Bladder sling surgery involves supporting the neck of the bladder with a piece of natural tissue or mesh. According to Mayo Clinic, the sling keeps the urethra closed so urine does not leak out of the body.
Bladder neck suspension is also used to treat incontinence. During this procedure, the surgeon places stitches in the structures supporting the bladder neck. Dr. Christopher Payne of the Stanford School of Medicine notes that these stitches are tied to a supporting structure, stabilizing the bladder and urethra. This procedure helps prevent leakage when a patient coughs, exercises or strains the muscles.
A patient with bladder leakage may be advised to lose excess weight or stop smoking, reports the National Association For Continence. Obesity is linked to urinary incontinence because excess weight puts pressure on the muscles in the pelvic floor. Smokers often cough frequently, which strains the muscles that support the bladder. Performing pelvic floor muscle exercises may also help keep incontinence in check.