Websites describing the stages of change model of addiction recovery in depth include ProChange.com, PsychCentral.com and Addictions.About.com. Not all sources give identical stages or numbers of steps for the model. ProChange.com is an official website of James Prochaska, who created the model with Carlo DiClemente.
ProChange.com, the website for psychologist James Prochaska's company Pro-Change Behavior Systems, describes five stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. An individual in the precontemplation stage is not ready for changing addictive behavior; a person in the contemplation stage is becoming ready; and a person who reaches the preparation stage is ready. The duration of each stage is not specified, and individuals do not always proceed directly from one stage to the next; rather, they return to earlier stages or repeat the progression through multiple stages.
Dr. Mark S. Gold for Psych Central outlines six stages of change, including precontemplation, contemplation, determination, action, maintenance and termination. Although Dr. Gold names the third stage determination, which is different from Prochaska's preparation, he specifies it is also a stage of preparation. Gold describes the sixth stage as termination, which Prochaska's model does not include, as the accomplished goal of all the stages; addicts in this stage no longer consider themselves tempted by the addictive substance.
Dr. Elizabeth Hartney for About.com describes the sixth stage of change as relapse, acknowledging that some individuals may be able to engage in the substance use or behaviors to which they were once addicted without returning to addiction while others cannot.