A menstrual period that only lasts a single day is not normal or common, but every woman's cycle is different, explains Mayo Clinic. Women should closely monitor their start date, end date, flow and pain levels each month to establish their own standard of normal.
Women who menstruate for only one day may suffer from hormonal irregularities, pelvic inflammatory disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, uterine fibroids or premature ovarian failure, according to Mayo Clinic. Excessive exercising or extreme dieting can cause menstrual irregularities as well. Women approaching menopause are likely to see their menstrual cycles shorten as their hormones shift. Birth control is a common cause for menstrual changes, as it alters a woman's hormonal balance.