According to WebMD, a wide variety of treatments exist for flat feet or fallen arches, such as rest and ice, stretching exercises, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, orthopedic devices, physical therapy and corticosteroids. Surgery is an alternative to these methods if the pain and damage are too severe.
WebMD also states that in surgery the foot and ankle bones may be fused together in a procedure known as arthrodesis. Other surgeries, which depend upon the exact cause, include osteotomy, surgical excision of bone spurs, synovectomy, tendon transfer and lateral column lengthening. Osteotomy is cutting or changing the shape of the bones in the foot, while synovectomy is the cleaning of the tendons' protective coverings. A transfer is used to counter the stress of the tendons in the foot and form a more natural arch by adding tendons from other parts of the body. Lateral column lengthening also helps shape the arch, but it involves grafting bone instead of tendon.
Home remedies can also function as appropriate treatment, according to WebMD. These include wearing appropriate footwear or icing the area in combination with rest and ibuprofen. Stretches recommended by a doctor or physical therapist are a proactive approach that can prepare the feet for more demanding activities. Avoiding high-impact activities, such as basketball and tennis, are effective in reducing or avoiding foot pain, although running can be done if it is performed on a correct surface. Preventing or minimizing foot pain can be accomplished by reducing risk factors, which include obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure.