Once esophageal cancer is diagnosed and its stage is determined, a doctor can suggest the appropriate treatment plan, reports the American Cancer Society. Depending on the cancer stage and cancer cell type, the treatment options can include endoscopic treatment, radiation, chemotherapy, surgery and targeted therapy. A person with esophageal cancer will need to go to a hospital for many of these treatment options, so he cannot be treated at home.
The different stages of esophageal cancer are stages 0 through IV. However, esophageal cancer is also classified according to the cell type that is malignant. The main cancer types are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, relates the University of Chicago Medicine. The treatment options in stage 0 involves either endoscopic treatment or surgery to remove the abnormal cells or part of the esophagus, states the American Cancer Society. Stages I, II and III of esophageal cancer involve the cancer growing and spreading to deeper layers of the esophagus and typical treatment can include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Sometimes a combination of surgery and chemoradiation is a possible treatment option, suggests the University of Chicago Medicine. In stage IV, the cancer has spread to other body parts and lymph nodes. The treatment option for this stage can be radiation, chemotherapy, palliative treatment and laser surgery. Palliative treatment involves alleviating the symptoms of the cancer with procedures like an esophageal stent.
The esophagus is the long tube that is located between the throat and stomach area. Some risk factors associated with esophageal cancer are tobacco or alcohol use and a condition called Barrett's esophagus. Symptoms of this cancer type are swallowing problems, hoarse voice and coughing.