Hematuria has a variety of causes, some of which are very serious conditions, and so to get effective treatment requires examination and diagnosis by a health care professional, Mayo Clinic says. Hematuria is not itself treated; rather, doctors treat the cause of the condition. Doctors use urine tests, physical exams and imaging tests to diagnose the cause of hematuria. Doctors may also use cytoscopy, where a tiny camera is inserted into the urethra to view the urinary tract.
Possible causes of hematuria, or blood in the urine, include kidney infections, enlarged prostate, bladder cancer, trauma to the kidney or strenuous exercise, explains Mayo Clinic. Other causes can include urinary tract infections, kidney stones, kidney disease, sickle cell anemia or prostate cancer. Hematuria is common in men over 50 years old because enlarged prostate glands are common in this group. In children, one of the most common causes is a recent infection. Certain medications including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin or antibiotics also increase the risk of blood in the urine.
When a person can see blood in urine, this is known as gross hematuria, Mayo Clinic says. Blood cells can be present in urine without being visible to the naked eye, however. In these cases, the blood is generally only detected after doctors view the urine under a microscope.