Diet is one of the potential causes of elevated PSA, states MedlinePlus. Men who eat a diet rich in high fat, especially animal fat, are at risk of high PSA level. While obese men are at high risk of elevated PSA, vegetarians are at lower risk of prostate cancer.
Other causes of elevated PSA include benign conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, or enlargement of the prostate, and prostatitis, or inflammation of the prostate gland, according to the Canadian Cancer Society. Medical procedures such as urinary retention by placing of a catheter into the bladder and prostate biopsy may also cause a significant increase in PSA level, explains EverydayHealth.com.
In addition, high PSA levels may be caused by urinary tract infection, which may irritate and inflame prostate cells, causing PSA to rise. Similarly, PSA levels may increase gradually as one grows old. Ejaculation may also cause a slight elevation in PSA levels. Digital rectal examination of the prostate gland or transrectal ultrasound may also temporarily elevate the PSA level, reports the Canadian Cancer Society.
A PSA test is used to measure the blood levels of PSA. It is commonly used to check for prostate conditions including prostate cancer, states WebMD. Increased PSA levels may, but not necessarily, mean the presence of prostate cancer. Research indicates that only about 25 percent of men with a high PSA result may actually have prostate cancer, states the Canadian Cancer Society.