One cause of orange urine is dehydration, according to Mayo Clinic. Dehydration is common in people with diabetes because high blood sugar levels cause the kidneys to excrete excess sugar in the urine, and this causes the person to urinate more frequently and in greater than normal amounts. Over time, this can lead to dehydration and symptoms such as increased urination and increased thirst, explains MedicineNet.
Liver disease is another common cause of dark orange urine, explains Mayo Clinic. Liver disease is also very common in people with diabetes, according to an abstract published in the journal of the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes Care. The severity of disease varies significantly, from simple elevations in liver enzymes to cirrhosis, liver cancer and hepatitis C. Liver disease accounts for up to 12.5 percent of diabetes-related deaths.
The dark urine associated with liver disease is the result of the build up in the bloodstream of bilirubin, the pigment in bile. Excess bilirubin causes jaundice, or a yellow discoloration of the skin and the whites of the eyes. It also causes the urine to become darker as the kidneys excrete bilirubin filtered from the blood, explains Johns Hopkins Medicine.
Other symptoms of liver disease include abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, clay-colored stools, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Easy bruising and bloody or tar-colored stools are sometimes present as well, Mayo Clinic explains.