A random urine test detects elevated levels of a protein called albumin, which can be present in the blood and urine at normal levels in a condition called albuminuria. Abnormal albumin levels indicate early kidney damage. Small amounts of albumin detected at abnormal levels is called microalbuminuria, according to WebMD.
Albumin is present in blood, but if there is kidney damage, albumin passes through the kidneys with little or no filtration, a condition called albuminuria. The most likely cause is complications from diabetes, resulting in kidney damage, states WebMD.
Urine tests are given on a random basis, over a specified period of time or over a 24-hour period of time. The test is an early detection mechanism for kidney disease and adjustment to treatment regimen should follow for the preservation of kidney function if albuminuria is detected, according to WebMD.
Random tests require a clean-catch midstream sample. Men and women should follow cleaning procedures to ensure that the sample is not cross-contaminated by feces, menstrual blood, bacteria or other foreign matter from the body during collection. Cleaning the hands and genitals and not touching the sample collection cup to the genitals help keep the sample clean while collecting the urine from the middle of the urine stream, says WebMD.