Cancer can be treated through various options including surgery, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, photodynamic therapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplant, immunotherapy and radiation therapy, but there is no definitive cure. A combination of two or more treatment options can be used to treat a particular type of cancer. The type of treatment to be used depends on the type of cancer, parts of the body it has affected and the stage of development.
Surgery is used to remove the tumor and the tissues around it for further research in the laboratory. After the research, doctors can recommend either radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is one of the popular methods of cancer treatment, and it involves using waves or energy particles to kill the cancerous cells. Chemotherapy uses medicine that is either given by mouth as a tablet or in the vein as an injection to kill the cells.
Immunotherapy is the use of drugs that help to improve the immune response against the cancer cells. It's commonly used in treating kidney cancer, as stated by National Health Services. Target therapy is a new type of treatment that uses medicine to identify and kill the cancerous cells, but it can cause harm to normal cells. In photodynamic therapy, special drugs alongside with light are used to eliminate the cancerous cells. Another method of treatment is hyperthermia whereby heat is used to treat cancer, although it is still being improved, as stated by the American Cancer Society.