Some causes for a white bump on the roof of the mouth are mucoceles, Epstein pearls and oral cancer. Although Epstein pearls and mucoceles are harmless bumps or growths that tend to form on the palate, oral cancer is more serious and requires treatment. Epstein pearls are typically associated with newborns, and the condition disappears without treatment, states the National Institutes of Health's MedlinePlus.
Epstein pearls are white bumps that can develop on the roof of the mouth and gums of newborn children. Approximately 80 percent of newborns have these types of mouth bumps, according to MedlinePlus. These bumps resolve on their own in 1 to 2 weeks.
Mucoceles are other types of harmless and painless bumps that form on the palate, gums and beneath the tongue, notes WebMD. These pearl-like growths are caused by damaged or blocked salivary ducts. Although most mucoceles disappear without treatment, others can grow larger and may require the removal of the salivary gland to correct the issue.
Oral cancer can present as a lump, lesion or irritation anywhere in the mouth. The growths can be white, and patches that form can be white or red. Some other symptoms of oral cancer are bleeding from the mouth, inability to chew or swallow properly and throat issues, reports the Cleveland Clinic.