Iodine deficiency can cause a multinodular goiter on the thyroid, according to Mayo Clinic. Blood tests may be normal in the presence of a multinodular goiter because there are no tests that identify the levels of iodine in a single person's body, states the American Thyroid Association.
If a person does not consume adequate amounts of iodine, the body is unable to produce sufficient thyroid hormones, resulting in an iodine deficiency. The thyroid gland enlarges as it works to produce enough hormones, causing a goiter and nodules to form, explains the American Thyroid Association. Doctors do not test for iodine levels through individual blood tests but by testing the urine samples from an entire population.
If low iodine levels are suspected, eating foods such as dairy, iodized salt, seafood, bread and eggs can help restore normal iodine levels in the body. In some cases, taking a multivitamin that contains iodine is necessary. The advice and instruction of a physician is required to determine the appropriate sources and dosage of iodine a person needs. Too much iodine can create health complications, especially in individuals who have thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism or auto immune thyroid disorder, says the American Thyroid Association.