Bladder pain, irritation and inflammation can be controlled by diet, pelvic-floor exercises and medication, reports WebMD. In worst-case scenarios, surgery or other procedures may be performed to help relieve the pain.
Everyday Health warns that caffeine, alcohol, soda, acidic fruits, spicy foods and artificial sweeteners can all cause or worsen bladder irritation. If a urinary tract infection is already present, these foods can make the other symptoms worse.
As of 2015, the only FDA-approved oral medication to treat bladder irritation is Elmiron, also known as pentosan polysulfate sodium, reports WebMD. However, this drug is not always effective and takes up to several months to take proper effect. Therefore, health care practitioners may prescribe antihistamines, antidepressants and seizure medications to treat the symptoms. The safety and effectiveness of these medications to treat bladder irritation is unknown, as of 2015. If a patient is looking for mild pain relief, an over-the-counter painkiller is generally sufficient, but most cases of interstitial cystitis require prescription medication.
In conjunction with medication and diet changes, WebMD also suggests bladder retraining exercises, especially if the constant urge to urinate is worsening symptoms or pain. Retraining consists of increasing the time between bathroom trips at 10-minute increments. If this is ineffective, a doctor may pair retraining with bladder distention, a procedure that stretches the bladder's walls and increases its capacity.