Bone graft surgery is used to stimulate new bone formation where it is needed in the body, according to Cleveland Clinic. Many different types of injuries or conditions require bone graft surgery, including healing a fracture and building new bone in a diseased joint.
Another reason someone needs bone grafting surgery is if he has had surgical implants. Bone grafting promotes the body's healing response around the foreign implant, according to Cleveland Clinic. Risks during bone graft surgery include nerve damage, infection, excessive bleeding and stiffness. The amount of time needed for recovery depends on how well the patient heals and follows therapy guidelines.