Serum creatinine is a common blood test to detect kidney disease, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Creatinine is a normal waste product that results from the normal wear and tear of muscles in the body, and elevated levels may be a sign of kidney disease.
Glomerular Filtration Rate is another blood test used to detect kidney disease, states the National Kidney Foundation. This test measures how effective the kidneys are at filtering waste. A rate of 90 or above is normal, but a rate lower than 60 may indicate a problem, and measurements lower than 15 indicate kidney failure. Finally, doctors can use a test called blood urea nitrogen, which measures the breakdown of protein in the food people eat. As kidney function lowers, a person's blood urea nitrogen level rises.