Basic first aid instructions for minor cuts and scrapes advise washing hands to avoid infection, stopping the bleeding, cleaning the wound, applying an antibiotic ointment and covering the wound, according to Mayo Clinic. Clean the wound with only water, but it is okay to clean the surrounding area with a soapy washcloth. Reduce the risk of infection with over-the-counter creams, and change dressings at least daily to keep the wound clean.
Cuts that bleed profusely require immediate medical attention via 911, explains WebMD. This includes wounds from which blood is gushing and lacerations that bleed for more than 10 minutes. Call 911 in the event someone has chest pain, difficulty breathing or another life-threatening emergency.
Anaphylaxis can be fatal and may occur when someone experiences a severe allergic reaction, reports Mayo Clinic. If someone suddenly breaks out in hives, has facial swelling, has trouble breathing, gets dizzy or passes out, call 911 immediately. The victim may need assistance with his epinephrine auto-injector, if he has one. He should lie horizontally after receiving an injection, unless there is bleeding from the mouth or vomiting, which requires turning the person on one side. Administer CPR when necessary until emergency personnel can assist the victim.
Basic first aid for minor burns includes soothing the burn with cool running water, reports Healthline. Do not use ice, but offer pain relief with moisturizers, aloe vera gel and over-the-counter medications. For severe burns, ensure the victim’s clothing is not still burning, and call 911. Elevate the burned area above the victim's head until help arrives.