Ailments that can necessitate heart surgery are ventricular aneurysms, as the Cardiothoracic Surgery Network notes, and blocked coronary arteries and cardiomyopathy, according to the Mayo Clinic. Surgery is also used to treat problems with the valves of the heart, states MedicineNet.
A ventricular aneurysm often happens after a heart attack, according to the Cardiothoracic Surgery Network. It is a ballooning of an area of weakened heart muscle, and the surgery used to repair it is called left ventricular aneurysmectomy.
Cardiac arteries can be blocked by plaque made of cholesterol, according to the Mayo Clinic. The options for treatment include angioplasty and heart bypass surgery. Angioplasty involves the insertion of a tiny balloon into the damaged artery. The balloon is then expanded, and the narrowed artery opens up. In heart bypass surgery, a section of the patient's leg vein or chest vein is used to bypass a partial or complete blockage in the artery.
Cardiomyopathy is the term for a disease of the heart muscle, says the Mayo Clinic. Depending on the type of cardiomyopathy and the severity of the disease, cardiomyopathy can be treated with surgical implants or, in very dire cases, a heart transplant.
Heart valves are necessary to make sure that blood flows properly through the heart, claims MedicineNet. Surgical treatments for damaged valves are valve transplant or repair.