The biggest advantage of male and female sterilization is that they are permanent, effective means of birth control, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Planned Parenthood. For women, tubal ligation and tubal implants are available, while for men, the vasectomy is the permanent solution.
Both female and male sterilizations are outpatient procedures, and because they are minimally invasive, they require very little recovery time, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Planned Parenthood. For women, there are no long-term side effects to the treatment, and the procedure can be performed at a hospital, clinic or doctor's office. For men, there may be some swelling and pain immediately following the procedure, but this should subside within 24 hours and normal activity can resume.
The disadvantage of female sterilization is that it is a permanent procedure, making it unsuitable for women who may want to have children in the future, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For men, there is a less than 1 percent chance that pregnancy will occur following a vasectomy. It may take up to 16 weeks until there is no sperm present in the semen, necessitating a backup method of birth control during this time, according to Planned Parenthood. In men and women, sterilization does not prevent sexually transmitted infections.