Symptoms of advanced bladder cancer include pain in the lower back, swelling in the lower legs and a growth in the pelvis near the bladder, according to WebMD. Other symptoms of advanced bladder cancer may include weight loss, anemia, bone pain or pain in the rectal, anal or pelvic area.
It is estimated that approximately 74,000 new cases of bladder cancer may be diagnosed in the United States in 2015, with approximately 16,000 deaths. Men are 3 to 4 times more likely than women to be diagnosed with this type of cancer during their lifetime, according to the American Cancer Society.
The most common symptoms of bladder cancer include blood or blood clots in the urine, frequent urinary tract infections, pain during urination and urinating small amounts frequently, notes WebMD.
Tests for bladder cancer diagnosis may include cystoscopy, biopsy, urine cytology and imaging tests, according to Mayo Clinic. Once bladder cancer is confirmed, a CT scan, MRI, bone scan and a chest X-ray may be used to determine the extent or stage of the cancer. Treatment for bladder cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy or biological therapy that stimulates the body’s immune system to assist in the destruction of cancer cells.