Acute renal failure is a condition in which the kidneys are suddenly unable to filter and eliminate waste from the blood, as stated by Mayo Clinic. The process is very rapid and occurs within two days, according to MedlinePlus.
When the kidneys lose their ability to filter and eliminate wastes, waste and body fluids rise to dangerous levels. The electrolytes and chemical makeup of the blood are also out of balance, as stated by Mayo Clinic. This condition is common in patients who are already in the hospital and who need intensive care treatment, as stated by Healthline.
Symptoms include bloody stools, swelling in the ankles and feet as the body accumulates fluid, high blood pressure, seizures and nausea. Other symptoms include vomiting, a metallic taste in mouth, breath odor, a decreased sensation in hands and feet, and flank pain between the hips and ribs, according to MedlinePlus.