Portugal's form of government is a republic, which means the country is managed by citizens and their elected officials, with an elected president at the head. Portugal existed as a monarchy for 800 years, but in 1910 it was overthrown. The last monarch, King Manuel II, was exiled to England. In 1911, the first Republic constitution was established.
Between 1932 and 1974, Portugal was ruled by a rigid dictator, António de Oliveira Salazar. According to the history site Fun Trivia, the Carnation Revolution resulted in a non-violent takeover of Salazar's regime conducted by Portugal's armed forces.
Detailed by Portugal-Live, the country's 1976 constitution specifies a five-year presidential election term. The president of the republic's responsibilities include appointment of a prime minister, service as the country's armed forces commander-in-chief and parliament session determination. In Portugal, parliament is similar to the United States House of Representatives and represents all citizens of the country. It is called the Assembly of the Republic and seats 230 elected members.
The CIA library defines Portugal's court system as civil because it focuses on individual freedom and cooperation among human beings. This type of system excludes criminal, commercial, labor and similar laws. Sixty percent of the world uses civil law systems.