According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook, Indonesia has a republican form of government. In such a government, the people or their elected representatives control the organs of political power.
On paper, Indonesia has been a republic since its independence from the Netherlands in 1949, but much of its history until 1998 was characterized by authoritarian governments under Presidents Sukarno and Suharto. Following Suharto's resignation, the country embarked on a number of constitutional changes. Now, Indonesia's president has been elected for a five-year term and may run for two total terms. He is both head of government and head of state. The legislative branch is called the People's Consultative Assembly. It consists of two houses: the People's Representative Council and the House of Regional Representatives. Elections occur every five years. The Supreme Court and Constitutional Court, both of whose members are appointed, comprise the judicial branch.