The Canadian government is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The government is comprised of the executive, judicial and legislative branches. The parliament is bicameral, which includes the Senate and House of Commons.
The head of state is the ruling monarch of the United Kingdom who is represented through a governor general. The prime minister heads the government. The governor general serves a five-year term, and the prime minister is free to advise the monarch on who should fulfill the post. Cabinet members, or the Federal Ministry, are picked by the prime minister, and these people are from the same political party.
Senate members are chosen by the governor general, based on the advice of the prime minister, and each senator can serve until the age of 75. There are a total of 105 senate members. The House of Commons holds 308 seats, and members are voted in by the public for four-year terms.
The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of Canada, with a chief justice and eight other judges. Judges are chosen by the prime minister, and judges can only serve until 75 years of age. The court system is based on common law, but Quebec still maintains the French civil code. Political parties of Canada include the Green Party, Conservative Party of Canada, Liberal Party, New Democratic Party and the Bloc Quebecois.