The German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) believed the ideal type of bureaucratic authority structure would be bound by formalized rules, allow only those specifically competent to serve and prohibit members from ownership of the means of administration or production. Weber also advocated civic education and an increased participation by society in civic affairs. Weber's analysis of bureaucracy placed an emphasis on state institutions based on rational-legal authority on those founded on traditional or charismatic leadership.Continue Reading
Weber suggested that a proper political education would instill the virtues of both the ethic of responsibility and the ethic of conviction. His concept of the ethic of responsibility was based on his belief that there should be an ethical integrity connecting a chosen action to its consequences. The reasoning behind Weber's ethic of conviction, on the other hand, is based on an individual's ability to autonomously choose not only the means, but the end also.
Weber saw bureaucracies based on rational-legal authority as the form of government developing in modern nation-states and coupled to the rise of both nationalism and capitalism. He believed this was what differentiated Western Europe from the rest of the world and that this trend first developed within western civilization. Weber was, however, not uncritical of the trend in society towards rationalism, and felt that a societal disenchantment would set in as the world became less mystical and more explained. This process could result in society losing its more sublime values, impair the development of individualism and cause art to become less creative.Learn more about Types of Government
Bureaucratic management is a theory set forth by Max Weber, a German sociologist and political economist whose theory contained two essential elements, including structuring an organization into a hierarchy and having clearly defined rules to help govern an organization and its members. Bureaucratic management can be thought of as a formal system within an organization that is distinctly based on precisely defined hierarchical roles and levels to help maintain efficiency and effectiveness.Full Answer >
Capitalism refers to an economic system featuring private corporations and individuals maintaining ownership of a society's means of producing, distributing and exchanging wealth; mercantilism refers to a practice that predates capitalism, in which towns, regions and countries set up imbalances in trade with one another. Capitalism is designed to set up open competition, but mercantilism is designed to establish a winner among losers.Full Answer >
Feudalism is refers to an overall structure of society such as that which existed in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, while manorialism refers to the type of economic system that controlled the means of production during that era. Manorialism is the economic component of the larger societal system generally called feudalism. The terms feudalism and manorialism have been exchanged for each other at times, such as in the case of Adam Smith, who in his influential work, "The Wealth of Nations," uses the term feudalism in more of an economic sense than as a reference to the societal and political structure that was prevalent during the Middle Ages.Full Answer >
In a Communist economy, the government owns most of the means of production and will determine the allocation and provision of resources, products and services. In practice, this has led to the diversion of economic resources from the people, or consumers, to the industrial and military sectors.Full Answer >