Title IX was enacted with the federal Education Amendments of 1972 and protects against gender discrimination amongst educational institutions and collegiate athletics, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Title IX also protects the right to receive federal assistance funds regardless of gender and prohibits discrimination against pregnant women.
The U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights enforces Title IX. The U.S. Department of Labor reports that Title IX covers both public and private institutions. Some types of institutions and events are exempt, such as schools based on contrary religious tenets, military training institutions, schools that traditionally admit only one sex, fraternities and sororities, boy or girl conferences, father-son and mother-daughter activities, and scholarship awards for beauty pageants.