Nebraska is the only state in the United States which has a unicameral, or single-chamber, legislature. All of the other 49 states currently have bicameral, or two-chamber, legislatures. In 1934, during the 6th year of the Great Depression, Nebraska voters chose to amend their state's constitution and created the first unicameral state legislature in the nation.
One of the factors contributing to the Nebraskan voters' choice was the economic situation in 1934 and the belief that a single-chamber legislature would be less costly and more efficient than the bicameral two-house system. The voters chose to amend the state's constitution despite the argument from critics that a single-chamber approach would remove the system of checks and balances built into the bicameral model.
Nebraska's new unicameral state legislature met formally for the first time in 1937. Although the formal name of the state's governing body is the Nebraska Legislature, it is often referred to as "the Unicameral," and its members are commonly called "senators." The Nebraska state legislature is also the only nonpartisan legislature in the nation.
Much of the drive behind the historic amendment to the Nebraska state legislature came from the state's U.S. senator, George Norris, who pushed for legislative reform after returning from a trip he made to Queensland, Australia in 1931. The Australian state had switched to a unicameral parliament during the previous decade. Norris believed that it was a waste of money to have two governing bodies performing similar duties and that national party politics impaired the effective functioning of state-level governments.