Frauds are scams in disguise in which the person or people perpetrating the scams intentionally deprive others of their rights, cause injuries or gain other unlawful benefits, states The Law Dictionary. Various types of false advertising and other misrepresentations are considered scams that violate criminal and civil laws.
Bait and switch is a scam in which advertisers disguise their true intentions by offering products or services they have no intention of delivering, and then switch buyers to higher priced items, disparage the original item in order to lure buyers into another purchase, or deliver the original product in a state other than that in which it was advertised, according to the U.S. Government Publishing Office. Marriage fraud for immigration purposes is a scam in which a foreign national marries a U.S. citizen, and one or both parties know the marriage serves only as a means of gaining citizenship, according to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
Ponzi schemes are scams in which organizers promise returns to investors based on non-existent or fraudulent income opportunities and pay past investors with money taken in from new investors, according to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Because there is no real income, Ponzi schemes fall apart and are revealed as scams when there is not enough money from new investors to cover the returns to previous buyers.