Ngo Dinh Diem was the Roman Catholic who became president of the Republic of Vietnam in 1955. He was staunchly anti-communist and devoutly religious, which led to his assassination in 1963.
Diem was born in 1924, and his Roman Catholic beliefs clashed with the Buddhist beliefs held by many of the people as well as the top-ranking generals in the South Vietnamese army. He ruled under the belief that any criticism or opposition of his policies was in fact a vote for communism. His policies unwittingly encouraged pro-communist sympathies among the South Vietnamese people and guerrilla warfare tactics against his regime.