The Judicial Branch of the United States government, compromised of the Supreme Court and all lesser courts, is responsible for upholding and interpreting the mandates of the U.S. Constitution. Officials of the Judicial Branch determine whether or not laws and their application in specific circumstances follow the Constitution.Continue Reading
Article III of the Constitution establishes the Judicial Branch, but gives Congress the discretion to shape its composition and adapt rules to meet evolving needs. Congress also has the ability to create courts, which include district courts and appeals courts. Federal courts bear the responsibility of interpreting the law, determining whether a specific law conforms to the Constitution, and applying the law to specific cases, typically ones that are disputed. The Judicial Branch only intervenes in actual cases and controversies, rather than having the power to interpret laws in general if they are unattached to a specific case.
The highest court in the nation is the Supreme Court, and the justices remain in office until they die, resign or are impeached or convicted by Congress. Decisions made by a standing Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any higher authority. It has the final say on matters of federal law in the United States.Learn more about Law
Judicial review is controversial because an unelected group is charged with interpreting the Constitution and thereby the validity of laws affecting the populous.Judicial review should be void of all political bias, however, the power granted to a body that is not accountable to the public can be seen as an imbalance in the checks and balances intended by the three branch system of democracy in the United States.Full Answer >
Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the U.S. government, the U.S. Congress. The longest of the articles to the Constitution, Article I is broken down into 10 sections, and describes the organization of Congress and its delegated powers.Full Answer >
When the caseload of the Supreme Court became overwhelming and federal court filings began to increase exponentially, Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1891, also known as the Evarts Act, to establish nine courts of appeal.Full Answer >
The Judiciary Act of 1789, also known as "An act to establish the judicial courts of the United States," established a Supreme Court with the option for Congress to institute lower courts as needed federally, according to the Library of Congress. It created the groundwork for the federal court system.Full Answer >