During the Red Scare of 1919, intensely patriotic Americans stirred fears that the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia could spread to the United States. Though the term "Red Scare" is often associated with the anti-communist fervor of the 1950s, this, the first such incident, occurred soon after World War I.Continue Reading
The end of World War I in 1918 left millions out of work, causing widespread economic hardship. That hardship led to the growth of the Industrial Workers of the World (the "Wobblies") and Eugene Debs' Socialist Party. Both organizations had been opposed to U.S. involvement in the war, which put them at odds with conservatives. George Creel, who chaired the U.S. Committee on Public Information, called the groups "reds."
When 60,000 workers in Seattle launched a general strike in 1919, a public panic ensued. Critics labeled the workers as communists trying to start a revolution and called labor strikes anti-American. The hysteria grew when authorities across the country reported that they had foiled several anarchist bombing attempts. Due to the widespread fear, some citizens lost their civil liberties, and many were jailed for expressing certain political beliefs. This early Red Scare lasted only a few years, running out of steam in the early 1920s.Learn more about Types of Government
Some people who were blacklisted during the Red Scare of the 1940s and 1950s include Charlie Chaplin, Judy Holliday, Langston Hughes, Burl Ives and Gypsy Rose Lee. Others include Dalton Trumbo and Orson Welles. As a result of the blacklist, these individuals had trouble obtaining work in Hollywood.Full Answer >
"The Crucible" is a fictionalized account of the famous Salem witch trials, which caused public mass hysteria leading to false accusations; conditions that also existed during the Red Scare, a period of American history in which the accusation of communist sympathy could lead to professional and personal destruction. The term "witch hunt" originated with the Salem witch trials, and this term can be applied to the Red Scare, also known as McCarthyism.Full Answer >
Many people aren't aware that there were two Red Scare periods: one immediately after World War I, and one during the Cold War, after World War II. The first Red Scare lasted from 1919 until 1920 and the second from 1947 until 1957.Full Answer >
Puerto Rico, one of only two U.S. Commonwealths, maintains its government as a Republic, as do all 50 states in the United States. Puerto Rico has been recognized as a commonwealth since July 25, 1952. Though many resolutions, debates and congressional bills, house referendums, and presidential executive orders have spawned regarding the issue, Puerto Rico remains a commonwealth rather than being granted statehood.Full Answer >