Brazil does not have a prime minister. The head of state in Brazil is the president, who is elected every four years by majority. As of the October 2010 general election, the role is held by Dilma Rousseff, the first woman to be elected to this position in the country.
Brazil had a prime minister for two periods of history. During the reign of Dom Pedro II, modern Brazil was part of the Empire of Brazil, ruled by Dom Pedro II. Between 1847 and 1889, there was a parliament headed by a prime minister. This ended in 1889 with a military coup. There was also a brief period in the 1960s when Brazil also had a prime minister, though this lasted for only three years before the presidency was restored.