According to UScourts.gov, federal courts may decide cases involving the U.S. government. Federal courts may also rule on issues regarding the U.S. Constitution, federal laws and interstate disputes.
Cases involving the U.S. government include United States v. Bell Telephone Co. (1888) and Dugan v. United States (1818). In the federal courts system, the Supreme Court is the highest court in the nation as accounted for in Article III of the U.S. Constitution. According to the Supreme Court's mission statement, the Court "stands as the final arbiter of the law and guardian of constitutional liberties." The Court consists of nine justices, eight being Associate Justices and one being Chief Justice. Below the Supreme Court, Congress has designated 13 appellate courts and 94 district courts. Defendants who are dissatisfied with decisions at the district level have the option of appealing to an appellate court and finally the Supreme Court, but no guarantee of appeal acceptance is given. Beneath the federal court system lies the state court system. State courts handle many social and familial cases through the use of juvenile, probate and family courts. A state supreme court case may or may not be eligible for U.S. Supreme Court review based on the case details.