According to the Federal Communications Commission, during a disaster, the means of communication include television, radio, telephone, satellite and Internet sources. Depending upon the type and damage level of the disaster, certain communication options are not available. The most common type in a time of disaster is a satellite telephone for disaster management professionals.
The Federal Communications Commission broadcasts emergency warnings to the public through various media. Communication between officials during times of crisis is more difficult. During the aftermath of a hurricane, telephone lines, Internet and electricity often do not work. Officials use phones that rely on satellites in space to communicate rather than telephone lines that require electricity. According to the Department of Homeland Security, officials also have the option to use the Homeland Security Information Network. This is a system that relies upon Internet connectivity and utilizes instant messaging and Internet-based documents to organize disaster management.
Fewer options exist for individual citizens who wish to communicate during a major disaster. Cellular telephones often do not work during a disaster. Some radios and the Internet, if available, are options for communication. Social media platforms also provide a way for citizens to connect with one another or for public officials to connect with citizens.