As is the case with other forms of government in American political theory, local governments derive their power from the people; in practice, local governments receive their authorization from their respective states. Local governments, be they counties, townships or municipalities, are expected to obey and enforce the state constitution and auxiliary legislation.Continue Reading
According to USHistory.org, county and municipal governments get their authority to rule only as granted by the state. County governments, for instance, receive incorporation approval from the state. Municipalities, such as cities and towns, often arise as part of counties. Nevertheless, they are ultimately subordinate to the state, not the county. Many cities become "independent cities," meaning they are independent of any county. Such municipalities establish their own public services, like police department and waste management. All this makes the relationship between state and local governments different from the relationship between the federal and state governments. The states are not subdivisions of the federal government, but sovereign political units that cannot be dissolved.
USHistory.org explains that local governments are responsible for the policy that most affects peoples' lives. Emergency services, schools, parks and recreation, police, courts, public works and transportation are most often administered at the local level.Learn more about Branches of Government
The Supreme Court has exclusive powers and official jurisdiction over "all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consults" as well as any case that involves a state as one of the parties in the case and a foreign government. According to the Federal Judicial Center, the Supreme Court usually exercises its power of exclusive jurisdiction when two states are in a suit against one another.Full Answer >
Marbury vs. Madison was the first Supreme Court case to apply judicial review, which, under Article III of the Constitution, gave the Court power to void an act of Congress that was in violation of the Constitution. The decision helped define the Supreme Court as a separate branch of governmentFull Answer >
In the Marbury v. Madison case, the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of William Marbury's argument, but his commission was still denied because the court lacked the power to issue a writ of mandamus. The court ruled that President Thomas Jefferson, through his Secretary of State James Madison, was wrong to prohibit Marbury from becoming the Justice of the Peace of Washington County in the District of Columbia.Full Answer >
Munn v. Illinois was an influential Supreme Court case that determined the constitutionality of states to regulate corporate activity for certain businesses, according to Wikipedia. Additionally, it addressed the ability of a state to regulate the activities of businesses engaged in interstate transportation.Full Answer >