In the legal world, the term "discovery" is used to describe the formal process that a lawyer uses to obtain information from the opposing side before trial. Generally, discovery involves the opposing side answering interrogatory questions under oath.
Discovery can involve questions and seeking information of any kind provided the information is not subject to discovery limits. For example, confidential conversations between a husband and wife or patient and doctor may be protected, and private matters, such as a person's religious beliefs or sexual orientation, may be protected too. The testimony of witnesses, information on a business' operational practices and documents related to the dispute at hand are all subject to discovery.