Italy has a parliamentary democratic republic form of government with a multiparty system. There are three branches of power: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary branch.
The Council of Ministers, led by the prime minister, exercises executive power. Legislative power is vested in the two houses of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. The judiciary is headed by the High Council of the Judiciary. The president, elected by the parliament, is the head of state and commander-in-chief. A popular referendum abolished the monarchy and established Italy as a democratic republic in 1946. The Constituent Assembly of Italy wrote the constitution, which was established in 1948.