Important amendments to the U.S. Constitution include the First Amendment, Second Amendment, Sixth Amendment, 10th Amendment and 19th Amendment. The first four of these are a part of the original 10 amendments of the Bill of Rights. These amendments cover topics ranging from religion, speech, fair trial and women's rights.
The First Amendment forbids the government from infringing upon the free religious exercise of its citizens. It also prohibits the establishment of an official state religion, and it guarantees freedom of speech, of the press, of assemblies and of citizens to petition the government. This amendment is subject to certain limitations so that its exercise does not infringe upon the rights of others.
The Second Amendment defends the right of citizens to bear arms. As with the First Amendment, it is also subject to limitations.
The Sixth Amendment guarantees a right to a fair trial. It demands that the accused be told exactly what the trial is for and that the accused have the right to a public trial and counseled defense.
The 10th Amendment is important for the individual states within the United States. It states that the rights not given to federal government, nor prohibited to the states, belong to the states or the people.
The passage of the 19th Amendment was a watershed event in that it gave women the right to vote. This greatly facilitated the progression of the women's rights movement.