What Is the History of Egypt's Government?


Quick Answer

Egypt has had some form of government in place since approximately 3000 BC, when the pharaohs ruled the country. Assyrians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Arabs, Ottomans and the British have all at one point governed Egypt. Since 1922, Egypt has been self-governed, although Egypt's government in the 21st century has gone through much turmoil.

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Full Answer

Modern Egypt began with its independence from Great Britain in 1922, when King Fuad I became the first leader of the country. Egypt became a republic in 1953, when Muhammad Najib was declared Egypt's first president, followed by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser is known for nationalizing the Suez Canal and rejecting further British control.

After Nasser's death in 1970, Anwar al-Sadat took over the presidency. The completion of the Aswan High Dam and the Israeli peace treaty of 1979 took place under his watch. Sadat was assassinated in 1981 and succeeded by Hosni Mubarak.

Mubarak held onto power for decades until anti-government protests in 2011 pressured Mubarak into resigning. He was later sentenced to prison for ordering the killing of demonstrators. Mohammed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood won the presidential election in 2012. However, his proposed Islamist constitution as well as his suppression of freedom of speech caused further protests to break out in Egypt. The situation climaxed in 2013, when the army overthrew Morsi and attacked his supporters. A 2014 election placed former army chief Abdul Fattah al-Sisi in the presidency.

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