The executive branch has expanded its powers through federal bureaucracies. The growth of the federal bureaucracies began in 1789 but did not continue consistently. As of 2015, the total number of staff in the executive branch, including that of the U.S. Army, totals more than 4 million people.
As per Article II of the U.S. Constitution, the president, who is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and head of state, holds responsibility for the execution of laws that Congress approves. He is assisted in this by 15 Cabinet departments, independent federal commissions, government corporations and independent agencies. The president's immediate staff is called the EOP, or Executive Office of the President. Examples of the EOP include the National Security Council, or NSC, and the Council of Economic Advisors, or CEA.