Dual federalism is when a national government and a state government operate individually, as was the case for the United States until the Great Depression. Dual federalism naturally limits the power of the national government as it gives states the ability to make their own decisions and question the rulings of the national government.Continue Reading
Throughout the United State's dual federalism period, the national government was responsible for issues dealing with the nation, such as national defense, building the economy and dealing with foreign policy. The states took over everything else including their own state economic regulation, local matters and criminal law.
Dual federalism came to an end in part due to the Civil War. During the Civil War, the Southern states believed that they should be able to make their own decisions about important matters, including slavery. The Northern states, however, did not believe that the states should be given pure authority on such an important matter. They also did not believe that the union of the states should be dissolved based on this disagreement. They felt that there should be a unifying single rule on the issue.
When the Great Depression occurred, people were in shock and in trouble. President Roosevelt created the "New Deal" policies, which intruded upon people's lives in a way that the government had not previously done. From here, the dual federalism government of the United States became a cooperative federalism government.Learn more about Types of Government
Coercive federalism involves a strong centralized national government that exercises strict control over its states through the use of mandates or orders, often without providing the funding to carry out those requirements. In order to receive grant funding from the federal government, the states have to carry out the mandates first. This is a form of governance that the United States has followed on some issues since the 1960s, such as the environment and publicly funded education.Full Answer >
Centralized federalism revolves around the idea that the federal government should be the one setting national policy, and the state and local governments must be the ones to carry out these policies. Great Britain and France are examples of a centralized federalism.Full Answer >
Puerto Rico, one of only two U.S. Commonwealths, maintains its government as a Republic, as do all 50 states in the United States. Puerto Rico has been recognized as a commonwealth since July 25, 1952. Though many resolutions, debates and congressional bills, house referendums, and presidential executive orders have spawned regarding the issue, Puerto Rico remains a commonwealth rather than being granted statehood.Full Answer >
State government refers to the government offices, elected officials, bureaucrats, laws and government services that exist at the state level in each of the 50 states in the United States while local government refers to governments that cover smaller jurisdictions below the state level, including county and city government. For example, a state's governor serves at the state level of government while an individual town's mayor or city council is part of the local level of government. According to the U.S.'s Constitution, state governments, such as governor, state supreme court and state congress, have powers that are separate from the federal government, which is the president, Supreme Court and Congress.Full Answer >