Article III of the U.S. Constitution establishes the Supreme Court and allows Congress to establish other inferior courts through legislation, according to the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Congress established other Article III courts, including the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals and the U.S. District Courts.
There are also specialized U.S. courts that handle cases of exclusive federal jurisdiction such as bankruptcy cases and patent disputes, explains the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. In addition to the Article III courts, there are other courts that derive their jurisdiction from Article I of the Constitution. These include appeals of military courts martial, the tax courts of the Internal Revenue Service and appeals of claims before the Department of Veterans Affairs.