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What are the different types of correctional facilities?

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Quick Answer

Municipalities, states, the federal government and private companies operate correctional facilities at low, medium and maximum security levels, such as jails and prisons. Separate correctional facilities are maintained by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the U.S. military and Native American tribes, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

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Full Answer

City and county jails typically house inmates sentenced to less than one year and people awaiting trial for local and state crimes. State-run correctional facilities feature low, medium and maximum security levels and typically hold felony offenders sentenced to a year or more, explains the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The federal government operates low, medium and maximum security correctional facilities for inmates convicted of federal crimes. It also operates administrative correctional facilities to house inmates with special medical needs and those who pose a high escape or violence risk, states the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

The federal government operates several separate correctional facilities to house inmates convicted of federal crimes related to customs, trade and immigration. These facilities also house people accused of immigration violations who are awaiting deportation hearings, notes U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Other correctional facilities in the United States are operated by Native Americans on federally recognized Indian lands and by the U.S. military. Private companies operate low, medium and maximum security correctional facilities on behalf of local, state and federal governments, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

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