In political representation, an instructed delegate is a representative who acts according to the wishes of his constituents, while a trustee exercises his own judgment. The delegate model of representation often applies to situations in which the represented bodies are independent entities with conflicting interests. The trustee model of representation is the norm for representative bodies within a nation.Continue Reading
The delegate and trustee models of representation are highly contrasting. Delegates carry out instructions or orders from those whom they represent. They cast a vote or make a decision as their constituents would have them do, even when it conflicts with their private opinion. This representation is common in international relations, in which the political body represented is a sovereign nation or a government. Ambassadors and representatives to the United Nations, for example, do not shape treaties or cast votes as they wish, but as the president instructs. These situations are characterized by independent and competing states.
Trustees vote their conscience. Representatives at national legislatures tend to employ the trustee model. In these situations, the legislature or other deliberative body acts as the voice of a single nation. Although the representatives come from different states or provinces, their intention is not exclusively to further the interest of their constituency, but to achieve the collective good of the entire country.Learn more about Law
In theory, cities are divided into municipal electoral districts in whatever manner provides the best representation of the constituents within the potential district. However, there is an inherent risk of gerrymandering, a process by which electoral districts are modified or redrawn to give a certain candidate, group or political party an unfair advantage, in any electoral system which utilizes the electoral district system.Full Answer >
Descriptive representation refers to the belief that legislators and other government officials who share common experiences or characteristics, such as race and gender, with their constituents, especially minority groups, tend to better represent group interests. It builds constituent confidence in officials under the assumption that they share common values.Full Answer >
The U.S. fiduciary duty law, found in Title 29, Section 1104 of the U.S. Code, requires fiduciaries to execute their duties in conformity to trustee plans and applicable statutes, and with the welfare of beneficiaries and other pertinent parties as their primary focus, explains the Cornell University Law School. Because of this mandate, the law requires fiduciaries to, for example, keep administrative costs as low as possible and diversify trustee plan investments to minimize risk.Full Answer >
Typical duties of the trustee for a trust established by a will include administering the trust as set out in the terms, investing the trust's assets, keeping records and preparing tax returns, explains Fidelity. A trustee must also communicate on a regular basis with the beneficiaries of the trust.Full Answer >