Russian Communism advocated a workers' revolution, while Chinese Communism refocused its philosophy toward a peasant revolution. The former also proposed coexistence with capitalism, while the latter refused that notion and remained aggressive toward the USA as its imperialist enemy. These differences led to the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s.
One additional difference between the two is that Chinese Communism is still alive as of 2014, while Russian Communism is not. During the '80s, Chinese Communism shifted to market socialism. It manages to survive on account of its adaptability, whereby China provides its citizens with more freedoms and modifies its economic policies to be more favorable toward foreign trade.