Reference.com indicates that Scotland Yard introduced the use of the standard fingerprint classification in 1901. This system was created by Sir Francis Galton and Sir Edward Henry.
On July 28, 1999, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation launched the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, or IAFIS. It is a national fingerprint and criminal history system that contains data on 70 million subjects in the criminal master file. It also contains more than 34 million civil prints. These civil entries are typically from the U.S. military or those who have had federal employment.
Data includes not only fingerprints, but also criminal histories, physical characteristics, mug shots, aliases and scar/tattoo photos. All data is voluntarily submitted by state, local and federal law enforcement agencies.