The Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia, also known as the Philadelphia Convention, agreed to terms that established the powers of Congress and rules regarding representation that are presently enacted. The Constitutional Convention of 1787 gave Congress the power to regulate the economy, the national defense system and the currency. The Philadelphia Convention also established the rules that dictated the representation each state would receive in the Congress.
Smaller states and larger states had different ideas as to how many representatives each state should get. Smaller states did not feel that it was fair for larger states with more land to have a larger presence in the Congress, while larger states did not feel that it was proper for smaller states to have equal representation with larger states. The "Connecticut Compromise," offered by the delegate from Connecticut, Roger Sherman, established the representational appointment procedures that are still followed. The number of representatives each state received in the House of Representatives is based upon the population of the state, while the Senate is comprised of two senators from each state, regardless of population or size. The delegates of the Philadelphia Convention also agreed that for purposes of determining the population of state, slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person. This convention also established a 20-year rule in which the federal government could not pass legislation regulating slavery.