Some countries that do not have an extradition treaty with the U.S include Andorra, Croatia, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Cambodia, Belarus, Russia, Indonesia and Cameroon. Others include Lebanon, Gabon, Libya, Micronesia, Moldova and Vatican City.
The U.S has extradition treaties with over 100 countries. This includes most countries in the western hemisphere. U.S. extradition laws allows for the extradition of any one who has been charged by the U.S. of a crime, upon request by the U.S. Extradition. However, the actual arrest must be done by the law enforcement officials in the target country. The U.S has no legal right to perform an arrest within the territory of a sovereign nation.
Extradition laws only apply if a person is found or identified by the country's law enforcement offices. According to a CNBC report, many fugitives still avoid capture even when resident in countries that share an extradition treaty with the U.S. They achieve this by hiding in cities with really large populations and a less than efficient administrative structure. Popular hideouts of fugitives include Tianjin, China, which has a population of 10 million; Salvado, Brazil, with a population of 2 million and St. Petersburg, Russia, with a population of 4.5 million. Andorra's strategic position between France and Spain makes it an attractive choice. Another city that is popular with fugitives is Macau, China.